Abstract:
In this study, Schiff base complexes of copper ion Cu2+ (A1) and Mo6+ (B1) were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, UV and 1HNMR techniques. The complexes were evaluated as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel alloy (C1010) in acidic medium of 0.1M of HCl at 25 ?C. The addition of KI raised the inhibition efficiency into 92% and 76% for A1 and B1 at 25 ?C respectively. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency in presence of KI has been evaluated at (25-55) ?C. The results were revealed that the efficiency of both inhibitors is reduced as temperature increases. Furthermore, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface alloy in presence of KI was obeyed to Langmuir adsorption mode. Thermodynamic functions like ?Hads, ?Gads and ?Sads were calculated. The adsorption process is an exothermic, spontaneous and the entropy is negative which refers that the reaction species tends to be stable in presence of the inhibitors. The kinetic functions such as Ea, ?H*, ?G*and ?S* were calculated. The results revealed that the activation energy of corrosion reaction in presence of ( inhibitor-KI) and inhibitor alone were greater than in absence of the inhibitor, the corrosion reaction was became an endothermic and non-spontaneous. The entropy of corrosion reaction is negative and it was increased in existence of the (inhibitor-KI) and in inhibitor alone toward positive value. The increases of entropy were reveals that an increase in disordering that takes place from reactant to the activated complex. The behaviors of the inhibitors in both cases were mixed inhibitor.
  
Key words:
Schiff base complexes, Corrosion inhibitors, Copper complexes, Molybdenum complexes, Carbon steel, Acidic corrosive medium.


Determinants of credit demand among small scale farmers in southern agricultural zone, Nasarawa state, Nigeria; Girei, A. A, Umar, H. S, Ohen, S.B; Inter. J. Aca. Stud. 2(11):264-277

Abstract:
The study was on determinants of credit demand among small scale farmers in Southern Agricultural zone of Nasarawa State Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of small scale farmers, identified the various types and sources of credit, and analyzed   the determinants of credit demand in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of one hundred and eight (108) respondents. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and logit regression. Results showed that 67.4% of the respondents were males, 54.6% of respondents were between the ages of 31-50years. Most of the respondents were married (94.4%). About 39.8% of respondents have farm sizes of less than 2 hectares, and 33.3% of respondents have no formal education. . The estimated logistic regression model gave an adjusted Pseudo R – squared of 0.48, which implies that the explanatory variables included in the model were able to explain about 48 per cent of the probability of the decision of farmers to demand credit. This result showed that income, level of education and group membership positively and significantly increases the probability of credit demand among small scale farmers. The study also revealed that small-scale farmers have limited access to credit and low level of education.  However, despite these problems, some small-scale farmers have managed to produce food for own consumption and some surplus for the market. This study therefore advocates and emphasizes access to agricultural credit by small-scale farmers as a major factor in their production processes and efficiency. It is therefore recommended that the Federal Government as well as other credit delivery institutions to focus on the provision of regular and sustained financial support for small-scale farmers in order to improve their s economic activities. This will ensure increased production and a boost in agriculture over a long period of time. It is also important to improve the literacy levels of farmers and encourage them to join existing or form new social groups or cooperative groups to enable them pull resources together for their benefits as well as for others.

Key words:
Determinants, Credit, Demand, Small-scale, Farmers, Agricultural Zone.



Inhibition of carbon steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Solution with natural inhibitor case:  Rosmarinus Officinalis L; M. Tiskar, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami, B. Satrani, M. Ghanmi, Y. El ammari, A. Chaouch; Inter. J. Aca. Stud. 2(11)478-492

Abstract:
The corrosion inhibition of Rosmarinus Officinals L Essential Oil (ROLEO) on the corrosion of carbon steel in molar hydrochloric acid has been evaluated using method, potentio-dynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental results obtained revealed that the inhibition efficiency have increased when the concentration of the ROL have increased but decreased with the increase in temperature. Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements clearly reveal that the investigated inhibitor is anodic inhibitor. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in 1 M HCl without and with addition of 100 ppm of ROLEO was studied in the temperature range from 298 to 328 K. Electrochemical impedance data show that the addition of the ROLEO in the corrosive solution decreases the double layer capacitance and simultaneously increases the charge transfer resistance of the corrosion process, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the carbon steel surface. The ROLEO inhibitor adsorbed chemical on the carbon steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The parameters of activation energy was evaluated and discussed.

Key words:
Corrosion inhibition, Rosmarinus Officinals L, Essential oil, Carbon steel, 1 M HCl, Electrochemical techniques.

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